1.New Fiber Definition
The reason why new fibers are called new fibers, mainly the shape, performance, or other aspects of the fiber is different from the original traditional fibers, and in order to meet the needs of production and life, in some aspects to improve the fiber. The new fiber is the traditional fiber no longer meets the needs of people in some aspects, to solve some of the defects of the traditional fiber conditions should be born, it reflects the people’s requirements for textile materials to improve.
2.Prospects for new fiber development
With people’s awareness of environmental protection and the current development of new fibers, it is easy to see that the trend of new fiber development is now towards diversification, novelty, and environmental protection. With the improvement of people’s living standards and the defects of some fibers, people are not only satisfied with the existing fibers, but also pursue diversification in fiber materials; new product development of various fabrics requires various new fibers, which requires the novelty of new fibers; as the production process of chemical fibers and waste, fibers have caused great environmental problems, which requires the future development of new fibers for environmental protection.
In addition, the development of new textile fiber depends on the level of polymer science, and China’s current level of development of polymer science is low, which leads to many high-performance materials, high value-added products that need to be imported. Such as the production of medical sutures, high-performance artificial blood vessels. For this reason, scientific researchers should be committed to the development of a variety of high-performance polymer materials, which in turn will promote the development and application of new textile fibers.
3. Significance of new fiber development
The application of new textile materials, giving life to the traditional textile industry, coupled with the integration of textile electromechanical, intelligent promotion, and new production processes, making this ancient industry can be vibrant, renewed glory. The continuous development and use of new natural fibers not only save energy such as oil but also reduces environmental pollution, natural fibers have a certain affinity for the human body, some natural fibers also have health care and other effects, with the growing pursuit of people advocating nature, return to nature, increase the development and use of natural fibers, so that it has broader market prospects.
4. New Fiber Classification
The new fibers can be divided into new natural fibers, new cellulose fibers, regenerated protein fibers, water-soluble fibers, functional fibers, differentiated fibers, high-performance fibers, and high-sensitivity fibers.
1、New natural fiber
The new natural fibers are mainly natural colored cotton and modified wool two categories. Ordinary cotton fabrics need to go through the chemical bleaching and dyeing process to become colorful, and textiles made of natural colored cotton, without chemical dyeing process can have a colorful color, can be said to be a true sense of green products, the current natural colored cotton mainly brown, green and brown three series of colored cotton. As people’s green textiles and consumption are more and more intense, the use of natural colored cotton pinned on the great hope.
Modified wool is through the wool deformation treatment so that the wool fiber diameter can become finer 0.5-1μm, the feel becomes soft, delicate, moisture absorption, abrasion resistance, insulation, dyeing properties are improved, the luster brightened.
2、New cellulose fiber
New cellulose fiber is known as the 21st century “green fiber”, which has a soft feel, good drapability, silky luster, moisture absorption, and breathability, anti-static, high wet strength characteristics. The new fibers mainly include Lyocell, model, riche, etc. New cellulose fiber and other fiber blended products are increasingly expanding, breaking the pattern of viscose fiber is mainly used for coarse woolen products, applied to the development of worsted products and knitted products to improve the product grade, suitable for making women’s and casual clothing.
3、Regenerated protein fiber
Regenerated protein fiber is made by spinning the solubles of protein extracted from natural animal milk or plants. Among them, soy protein fiber has a low density of monofilament yarn, low density, high tensile strength, good acid resistance and alkali resistance, soft feel, wool-like feel, silk-like soft luster, cotton fiber moisture absorption and moisture conductivity, and wearing comfort, wool warmth, but heat resistance is poor, the fiber itself is beige. In addition, the variety of soy protein fiber is widely adaptable, and cotton, wool, silk, acrylic, polyester, Tencel, etc. have a good blending effect. Wool type products have better style, ladies’ clothing fabrics have better style, and cotton type fabrics are ideal for medium and thick clothing fabrics.
Silkworm pupa protein fiber will be purified and prepared into a solution of silkworm pupa protein blended with viscose in proportion, using wet spinning to form a skin core structure of protein-containing fibers. The fiber has good moisture absorption, breathability, soft hand feeling, good drapability, but the wet strength is low, the fiber itself presents a darker yellow, which will affect the brightness of the textile color.
Nano antibacterial regenerated protein fiber will be pig hair, wool, and other waste wool dissolved, purified, and modified with cotton pulp or wood pulp or bamboo pulp solution blended, adding nano-grade iron dioxide in the spinning, by wet spinning to make a kind of antibacterial regenerated protein fiber.
Water-soluble fiber is a textile fiber in the excessive nature of a process fiber, it is the use of certain process conditions can be dissolved in water fiber, most of the use of the fiber is mainly mixed in other fibers, can make the textile yarn fabric fluffy yarn count thin, so that the fabric is soft, light and fluffy, mainly water-soluble Vylon, water-soluble PVA, water-soluble K-II, etc., mainly using the companion spinning process.
The superiority of water-soluble fiber companion spinning is ① low cost of raw materials, water-soluble PVA fiber. Companion spinning available ordinary wool spinning low line density, light products; ② high textile efficiency, the use of water-soluble fiber companion spinning, spinning head reduction, yarn strength increase, uneven rate reduction, defect reduction; ③ fabric grade high, the use of water-soluble fiber blending, fabric smooth glutinous, fluffy, comprehensive style value (THV) have improved.
Functional fibers are divided into three categories: the first category is the modification of conventional synthetic fibers to overcome their inherent shortcomings; the second category is for natural fibers and chemical fibers originally did not have the performance, through chemical and physical modification means to give it thermal storage, electrical conductivity, water absorption, moisture absorption, antibacterial, deodorant, aromatic, flame retardant and other additional properties, making it more suitable for human wearing comfort and decorative applications; the third category has special features, such as high strength, high modulus, heat-resistant, flame-retardant high-mode, heat-resistant, flame-retardant high-performance fibers. Mainly including organic conductive fibers, elastic fibers, anti-UV fibers, anti-bacterial and anti-odor fibers, negative ion fibers, chitin fibers, high moisture absorption fibers, etc. High-functioning fibers are mainly used in production and certain aspects of life in order to be applied, and the functions are particularly outstanding in these areas.
It refers to chemical fibers with a different performance from ordinary conventional fibers, i.e., chemical fibers with some or more special functions due to changes in their structure and morphology by chemical or physical means. Mainly including cationic high shrinkage fiber, shaped fiber, two-component low melting point fiber, composite ultra-fine fiber, high moisture absorption, and moisture permeability fiber, anti-pilling, colored fiber, optical fiber, activated carbon fiber, ion exchange fiber, ultra-fine fiber sheet, nano-fiber, and high flame retardant, anti-melt drip, high moisture conductivity, anti-static, conductive, anti-bacterial and anti-odor, radiation, and other multi-functional composite fiber.
7、 High-performance fiber
High-performance fibers for mechanical properties while having a strength of 18cN∕dtex, the initial modulus of 441cN∕dtex special fibers. The main varieties of organic fibers are para-aramid, all-aromatic polyester, ultra-high relative molecular mass of high-strength polyethylene fibers. Inorganic fibers are mainly carbon fibers. High-performance fibers have good tensile properties, shear properties, fatigue resistance, good thermal insulation, and heat dissipation properties. Different high-performance fibers focus on different properties.
High-sensitivity fiber refers to the high functional fiber, there is a class of fibers in the taking textile feel, style, touch, texture and the appearance of the finished product has a special contribution, so that the final product taking performance, or a unique style, or better than natural fibers, or to achieve a special taking function, is the “new combined fiber”, “super simulation fiber”, “supernatural fibers” and the subsequent new taking fibers in general, also known as the new sensory fibers.
5.New fiber development trend
At present, under the influence of global sustainable development strategy, many countries are committed to the research of new fibers that do not affect the ecological environment, but also can use ecological resources. The new fiber materials must be tested for toxicology, have the corresponding mark, and meet the requirements of environmental protection, ecology, and human health. The new type of textile materials has become the development direction of the world’s attention. The use of green materials to develop ecological fibers, the use of biotechnology to develop biodegradable fibers, the choice of resource-saving, recyclable fiber materials have become the current trend in the development of new textile materials.
The use of green materials to develop new fibers using green materials to develop new fibers has become the main way to obtain new textile materials and research, development hotspots. From edible bananas, wheat, soybeans, corn, milk, shrimp, crabs, and so on wood, insects, spiders have become the source of new fiber materials. Today’s green materials include the original natural materials, natural materials-based refinements, and reprocessed products of the original fiber.
Recycled materials are the raw materials and energy used in the continuous cycle of rational use, saving ecological resources. Modern textiles require recyclable, renewable, and sustainable materials, therefore, the development and utilization of recycled materials should be the future trend of new material development. The natural fiber material is a huge regenerative biopolymer resource on earth, as a resource recycling material “from nature and back to nature”, has irreplaceable development advantages.
As a traditional textile material, the man-made fiber material is mostly made of natural renewable non-petroleum resources, which is in line with the demand for sustainable development. Synthetic fibers are mostly petroleum compounds, and petroleum is a primary resource, and conventional synthetic fibers are non-renewable and non-degradable. At present, how to recycle synthetic fibers is the focus of ecological materials research, but also to combat environmental pollution, save resources and energy, and promote the recycling of synthetic materials, one of the most active waste treatment methods. We have developed chemical recycling systems for recovering polymers and fibers as well as for recovering monomers. Back to nature, adapt to the environment is the general trend of textile materials.
The development of ecological textile materials for the protection of the living environment, the realization of sustainable development of the textile industry to provide a guarantee, in line with the requirements of the 21st century, green environmental protection era. With the civilization and progress of society, it can be assumed that the future textile industry will be a green ecological industry.